Oyster Mushroom Growth Stages

Oyster mushroom growth stages consist of mycelium colonization, pinning, fruiting body development, and mushroom maturation. Oyster mushrooms go through four main growth stages.

First, mycelium colonization occurs when the fungus spreads through the substrate. Next, pinning takes place, which involves the emergence of small pins from the substrate. Then, fruiting body development occurs as the pins grow into mature oyster mushrooms. Lastly, the mushrooms enter the maturation stage, where they increase in size and are ready for harvest.

Understanding these growth stages is crucial for cultivating oyster mushrooms successfully.

Understanding Oyster Mushroom Life Cycle

Oyster mushrooms are fascinating fungi with a unique life cycle. Understanding their growth stages can help mushroom enthusiasts cultivate these delectable mushrooms successfully. In this section, we will explore the various growth stages of oyster mushrooms and provide insights into each phase.

Introduction To Oyster Mushroom Growth Stages

Oyster mushrooms go through several growth stages, each characterized by its distinct development process. These stages are:

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Table of Contents

  • Spore germination: This is the initial phase of the oyster mushroom’s life cycle. Spores, which are microscopic reproductive cells, land on a suitable substrate and begin to germinate. Once the conditions are favorable, the spores develop into mycelium, a network of thread-like structures.
  • Mycelium growth: The mycelium expands and colonizes the substrate, breaking down organic matter and absorbing nutrients. This growth stage is crucial for establishing a strong foundation for the mushroom’s development.
  • Primordia formation: As the mycelium continues to grow, it forms tiny protrusions known as primordia. These primordia are the precursors to actual mushroom fruiting bodies. They indicate that the mycelium has reached maturity and is ready to transition to the next stage.
  • Fruiting body development: The primordia develop into fully grown fruiting bodies, which are the mushrooms that we commonly recognize. During this stage, the fruiting bodies undergo rapid growth, expanding in size and developing their characteristic shape, color, and texture.
  • Spore release: Once the mushroom matures, it begins to release spores. These spores are dispersed into the environment, allowing the cycle to begin anew. Oyster mushrooms have a unique way of spore release, with their gills or pores serving as the mechanism for spore dispersal.

Understanding the life cycle of oyster mushrooms can enhance your understanding of their cultivation process. By providing the ideal conditions and suitable substrate, you can facilitate each growth stage and enjoy a bountiful harvest of these delectable fungi. So let’s dive into each growth stage in detail, unraveling the mysteries of the oyster mushroom life cycle.

Stage 1: Spawn Production

Oyster Mushroom Growth Stages

Oyster mushrooms, scientifically known as pleurotus ostreatus, are a popular choice among mushroom enthusiasts due to their delicious taste and ease of cultivation. Understanding the different growth stages of oyster mushrooms is crucial for successful cultivation. In this blog post, we will delve into the various stages of oyster mushroom growth, starting with stage 1: spawn production.

Importance Of High-Quality Spawn

Spawn production is a critical stage in oyster mushroom cultivation as it sets the foundation for the entire process. Here are some important points to consider regarding high-quality spawn:

  • Quality spawn ensures healthy and vigorous mycelium growth, which translates into robust and productive mushroom crops.
  • Using inferior spawn can lead to poor colonization and low yields.
  • High-quality spawn is typically produced under sterile conditions, minimizing the risk of contamination.
  • It is essential to source spawn from reputable suppliers who maintain stringent quality control measures.

Factors Affecting Spawn Production

Several factors can influence the success of spawn production. Consider the following points:

  • Strain selection: Different oyster mushroom strains vary in their growth rates and adaptability to environmental conditions. Choosing a suitable strain is crucial for efficient spawn production.
  • Substrate selection: The substrate serves as the feeding medium for the mycelium to grow. Optimal substrate composition, including a mix of organic materials such as straw, wood chips, or sawdust, promotes healthy mycelial growth.
  • Sterilization technique: Proper sterilization of the substrate is essential to eliminate competing organisms and ensure the dominance of oyster mushroom mycelium. Common sterilization methods include heat treatment and chemical sterilization.
  • Inoculation and incubation: Inoculating the sterilized substrate with the oyster mushroom spawn is a critical step. Maintaining ideal incubation conditions, such as temperature and humidity, facilitates rapid mycelial growth and colonization.
  • Contamination control: Contamination from molds, bacteria, or other competing fungi can hinder spawn production. Maintaining strict hygiene practices and implementing proper sterilization techniques help minimize the risk of contamination.


Oyster Mushroom Growth Stages

Stage 2: Substrate Preparation

Once you have selected the right substrate for your oyster mushroom cultivation, the next step is to prepare it for the growth process. Substrate preparation is a crucial stage that lays the foundation for healthy and abundant mushroom growth. Here are the key points to keep in mind when preparing the substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation:

Selecting The Right Substrate For Oyster Mushrooms

  • Straw: A common and readily available substrate choice, straw is effective in promoting oyster mushroom growth. It should be clean, free from chemicals, and preferably made from wheat, barley, or oat straw.
  • Sawdust: Another popular option, sawdust provides a nutrient-rich environment for oyster mushrooms. Hardwood sawdust is generally recommended, as it breaks down slower and offers longevity for mushroom cultivation.
  • Coffee grounds: An eco-friendly and cost-effective choice, coffee grounds can be used as a substrate for oyster mushrooms. Ensure that the coffee grounds are used fresh and have been properly sterilized before use.

Preparing The Substrate For Oyster Mushroom Cultivation

  • Sterilization: To prevent contamination and promote healthy mushroom growth, it is vital to sterilize the substrate. This can be done using heat or steam sterilization methods.
  • Moisture adjustment: Oyster mushrooms thrive in a humid environment, so it is important to adjust the moisture content of the substrate. Aim for a moisture level of around 65-75% by properly hydrating the substrate.
  • Spawning: Once the substrate is prepared and at the right moisture level, it is time to introduce the mushroom spawn. Gently mix the spawn with the substrate to distribute it evenly.
  • Incubation: After spawning, cover the substrate with a clean plastic bag or place it in a sterilized container. Keep the temperature and humidity levels within the optimal range for oyster mushroom growth and allow the mycelium to colonize the substrate.
  • Post-incubation: Once the mycelium has successfully colonized the substrate, it is time to induce fruiting. This can be done by exposing the substrate to cooler temperatures and increased fresh air circulation.

By following these steps, you can ensure that your oyster mushrooms have the ideal conditions for growth and development. Substrate preparation is a crucial stage that sets the stage for successful mushroom cultivation. Now that you have learned about the substrate preparation process, you are ready to move on to the next stage of oyster mushroom growth.

Stage 3: Inoculation

The Role Of Inoculation In Oyster Mushroom Cultivation

Inoculation is a crucial stage in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. It involves introducing the mushroom spawn into a substrate, kickstarting the growth process. This stage sets the foundation for successful mushroom cultivation. Let’s delve into the role of inoculation and explore the different methods used.

Different Methods Of Inoculation:

  • Liquid spawn inoculation:
  • Liquid spawn refers to mycelium suspended in a liquid medium, facilitating easy distribution.
  • This method involves injecting the liquid spawn directly into the substrate, ensuring even colonization.
  • Grain spawn inoculation:
  • Grain spawn consists of sterilized grains colonized by mycelium, acting as carriers for the fungus.
  • In this method, the grain spawn is mixed thoroughly with the substrate for uniform distribution.
  • Sawdust spawn inoculation:
  • Sawdust spawn involves blending the mycelium with sterilized sawdust, forming a substrate rich in nutrients.
  • This blend is then pressed into blocks or added to bags, providing a suitable environment for the mycelium to grow.
  • Plug spawn inoculation:
  • Plug spawn consists of small wooden dowels impregnated with mycelium, acting as inoculation points.
  • Holes are drilled into logs or other suitable substrates, and the plug spawn is inserted, initiating colonization.

Each inoculation method has its advantages and is chosen based on the resources available and the desired cultivation outcome. Experimenting with different methods can help determine the most efficient and successful approach for oyster mushroom growth.

Inoculation serves as the crucial catalyst in oyster mushroom cultivation, enabling the mycelium to propagate and eventually produce bountiful mushroom fruits. The choice of inoculation method plays a vital role in ensuring optimal colonization and successful harvest. Understanding these different methods empowers growers to make informed decisions and achieve satisfying results in their oyster mushroom cultivation journey.

Stage 4: Incubation

Optimal Temperature And Humidity For Incubation

To ensure successful incubation of oyster mushrooms, it is crucial to maintain the optimal temperature and humidity levels. Here are the recommended conditions for this growth stage:

  • Temperature:
  • The ideal temperature range for incubating oyster mushrooms is between 20 to 24 degrees celsius (68 to 75 degrees fahrenheit).
  • This temperature range promotes the rapid growth of mycelium, the root-like network of the fungus, within the substrate.
  • Humidity:
  • The relative humidity level should be kept around 85 to 95% during incubation.
  • Maintaining high humidity prevents the substrate from drying out, allowing the mycelium to thrive and colonize effectively.
  • This optimal environment facilitates the formation of mature fruiting bodies during subsequent stages.

Monitoring And Maintaining Incubation Conditions

Monitoring and maintaining consistent incubation conditions are essential to ensure healthy mycelium growth. Here are some key considerations:

  • Monitoring temperature and humidity:
  • Use a thermometer and humidity meter to assess and track temperature and humidity levels regularly.
  • Place the thermometer and humidity meter inside the incubation area, close to the substrate, to obtain accurate readings.
  • Record the data in a logbook to keep track of any fluctuations.
  • Adjusting temperature and humidity:
  • If the temperature is too low, consider using a heating mat or adjusting the room temperature to maintain the desired range.
  • In case the humidity drops below the recommended level, mist the incubation area with clean water using a spray bottle.
  • Be cautious not to oversaturate the substrate, as excessive moisture could lead to unwanted bacterial or mold growth.
  • Proper ventilation:
  • While maintaining high humidity, it is equally essential to ensure proper airflow within the incubation area.
  • Good ventilation helps prevent the buildup of carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds released during the mycelium’s respiration process.
  • Maintain a gentle breeze or use a small fan to improve air circulation without directly targeting the substrate.
  • Sanitation:
  • Maintain cleanliness and hygiene within the incubation area to minimize the risk of contamination.
  • Regularly sanitize tools, containers, and surfaces to prevent the introduction of unwanted microorganisms.
  • Wash hands thoroughly before handling the substrate or working within the incubation area.

Maintaining optimal temperature and humidity levels, along with diligent monitoring and sanitation practices, greatly increases the chances of successful incubation for oyster mushrooms. By providing the ideal conditions, you pave the way for robust mycelium growth and, ultimately, a bountiful harvest.

Stage 5: Fruiting

As oyster mushrooms progress through their growth stages, they eventually reach the fifth and most exciting stage: fruiting. During this stage, the mushrooms begin to form the recognizable fruiting bodies that we commonly associate with oyster mushrooms. To ensure successful fruiting, there are several important environmental factors to consider.

Environmental Factors Required For Fruiting

In order for oyster mushrooms to fruit properly, it is crucial to provide the right environmental conditions. Here are the key factors to focus on:

  • Light: Oyster mushrooms require some light to trigger fruiting, but direct sunlight should be avoided as it can cause overheating. Indirect or diffused light is ideal.
  • Temperature: Maintaining the optimal temperature is crucial for fruiting. Oyster mushrooms thrive in a temperature range of 18-24°c (64-75°f) with 70-85% humidity.
  • Humidity: Adequate humidity levels are essential for fruiting. High humidity helps to encourage the development and growth of the mushrooms.

Managing Light, Temperature, And Humidity For Optimal Fruiting

To ensure the best possible outcome during the fruiting stage, it is important to manage light, temperature, and humidity properly. Here’s how to do it:

  • Light management:
  • Place the mushroom growing containers in a well-lit area with indirect sunlight or provide artificial diffused lighting.
  • Avoid exposing the mushrooms to direct sunlight, as it can lead to overheating and affect their growth.
  • Temperature control:
  • Maintain a consistent temperature within the recommended range of 18-24°c (64-75°f) throughout the fruiting stage.
  • Use a thermometer to monitor the temperature and make necessary adjustments if needed.
  • Humidity control:
  • Monitor the humidity levels using a hygrometer to ensure they stay within the 70-85% range.
  • Use a fine mist sprayer to maintain humidity by gently misting the growing area and the mushrooms themselves.

By managing light, temperature, and humidity effectively, you’ll enhance the chances of successful fruiting and achieve optimal growth for your oyster mushrooms.

Remember, each stage of oyster mushroom growth requires specific conditions and attention. With proper care and environmental management, you’ll be rewarded with a bountiful harvest during the fruiting stage. Keep an eye on these essential factors and enjoy the process of growing your own oyster mushrooms.

Stage 6: Harvesting

Identifying Ready-To-Harvest Oyster Mushrooms

At this stage of the oyster mushroom growth process, you need to accurately determine when your mushrooms are ready for harvesting. It’s vital to identify the perfect time to ensure maximum flavor and a bountiful yield. Here are some key indicators to look out for:

  • Size: Oyster mushrooms typically reach maturity when they are around 3-6 inches in diameter.
  • Open caps: The caps of fully grown oyster mushrooms are open, exposing the gills underneath.
  • Firmness: Ready-to-harvest oyster mushrooms should feel firm to the touch, indicating optimal texture and taste.
  • Color: Depending on the variety, the color of mature oyster mushrooms can range from creamy white to a light brown or grayish hue.

Techniques For Properly Harvesting Oyster Mushrooms

Once you’ve identified that your oyster mushrooms are ready for harvest, it’s time to gather them. Proper techniques ensure minimal damage and optimal regrowth for subsequent flushes. Follow these guidelines for a successful harvest:

  • Gently twist and pull: To remove oyster mushrooms from their substrate, gently twist the stem near the base and pull upwards. Avoid jerking or yanking the mushroom, as it can lead to damage.
  • Harvest in stages: Instead of harvesting all the mature mushrooms at once, pick them in stages. This helps extend the harvesting period and provides an opportunity for smaller mushrooms to grow further.
  • Use a sharp knife or pruning shears: If the stems are too tough to twist off, employ a sharp knife or pruning shears. Cut the stem cleanly at the base, ensuring a smooth cut without damaging the surrounding mycelium.
  • Collect in a clean container: Use a clean basket or container to collect the harvested mushrooms. Avoid using plastic bags, as they can cause moisture buildup and lead to spoilage.
  • Inspect before storage: Before storing harvested oyster mushrooms, carefully inspect each one for any signs of decay or pests. Discard any damaged or compromised mushrooms to maintain the quality of the harvest.
  • Store properly: Oyster mushrooms are best stored in a breathable container, such as a paper bag, in the refrigerator. Ensure proper ventilation to prevent excessive moisture buildup.

By following these techniques, you can harvest your oyster mushrooms effectively, ensuring a satisfying culinary experience and encouraging continued growth for future harvests. Happy harvesting!

Stage 7: Post-Harvest Handling

Oyster mushrooms are unique fungi that go through several growth stages before they are ready for harvesting. In this section, we will delve into stage 7: post-harvest handling. Proper post-harvest techniques are crucial for maintaining the freshness and quality of oyster mushrooms.

Let’s explore two important aspects: cleaning and sorting oyster mushrooms, as well as packaging and storage techniques.

Cleaning And Sorting Oyster Mushrooms:

  • Carefully brush off any dirt or debris from the mushroom caps using a soft-bristled brush.
  • Check for any damaged or bruised mushrooms and separate them from the rest.
  • Sort mushrooms based on their size and quality to ensure consistency in appearance.
  • Rinse the mushrooms gently under cold running water to remove any remaining dirt or microorganisms.
  • Pat dry the mushrooms using a clean cloth or paper towel before moving on to packaging.

Packaging And Storage Techniques To Maintain Freshness:

  • Place the cleaned and sorted mushrooms in breathable packaging materials, such as paper bags or perforated plastic containers. This allows for proper air circulation and prevents moisture buildup.
  • Avoid sealing the mushrooms in airtight bags or containers, as this can lead to condensation and spoilage.
  • Store the packaged mushrooms in a refrigerator set to a temperature between 1 to 4 degrees celsius (33.8 to 39.2 degrees fahrenheit).
  • Keep the mushrooms away from strong odors and other produce that may release ethylene gas, as it can accelerate their spoilage.
  • It is recommended to consume oyster mushrooms within a week of harvest to enjoy their optimal freshness and flavor.

By following these cleaning, sorting, packaging, and storage techniques, you can ensure that your oyster mushrooms retain their quality and remain fresh for a longer period. With proper post-harvest handling, you can maximize the visual appeal, taste, and shelf life of these delightful fungi.

So let’s put our newfound knowledge into practice and enjoy the fruits (or rather, mushrooms) of our labor!

Stage 8: Spent Mushroom Substrate Management

Oyster Mushroom Growth Stages

Oyster mushrooms are a fascinating species with various growth stages. In this blog post, we will explore stage 8, which centers around the management of spent mushroom substrate. As the mushrooms reach the end of their lifecycle, it’s important to understand how to best utilize or recycle the spent substrate effectively.

Let’s delve into the potential uses for spent mushroom substrate and explore options for reusing or recycling it.

Reusing Or Recycling Spent Mushroom Substrate:

  • Composting: Spent mushroom substrate can be an excellent addition to your compost pile. Its rich organic matter and nutrients help nourish the compost and enhance its fertility.
  • Soil amendment: Mixing spent mushroom substrate with garden soil can improve its structure, aeration, and water-holding capacity. This can be particularly beneficial for growing vegetables, herbs, or flowers.
  • Plant mulch: Apply spent mushroom substrate as a natural mulch layer around your plants. It helps regulate soil moisture, suppresses weed growth, and slowly releases nutrients back into the soil.
  • Vermiculture: Incorporating spent substrate into worm bins can provide a nutritious food source for the worms. As the worms decompose the substrate, they produce nutrient-rich castings, also known as vermicast.
  • Animal feed supplement: Spent mushroom substrate can be used as a feed supplement for livestock, particularly for cattle and poultry. However, it’s important to consult a veterinarian or animal nutritionist before using it as part of their diet.

Potential Uses For Spent Mushroom Substrate:

  • Biofuel production: Spent mushroom substrate contains high levels of lignin, a complex organic polymer. This makes it a promising feedstock for the production of biofuels such as ethanol or biogas.
  • Mushroom production: While oyster mushrooms have already been cultivated on the substrate, some growers reuse it for subsequent mushroom crops. This can help maximize resources and potentially increase yields.
  • Mushroom spawn production: Spent substrate can be used to produce mushroom spawn, which is the mycelium used to inoculate new growing materials. It acts as a valuable source of nutrients and can be mixed with other organic materials to create spawn.
  • Research and experimentation: Spent mushroom substrate offers great opportunities for scientific research and experimentation. Its diverse composition and nutrient content make it an ideal medium for studying various microorganisms or testing new cultivation techniques.

It’s truly remarkable how spent mushroom substrate can be repurposed in so many beneficial ways. Whether it’s through composting, soil amendment, or even as an animal feed supplement, this resource holds immense value beyond its initial use. By embracing sustainable practices and exploring innovative applications for spent mushroom substrate, we can ensure a more environmentally-friendly and economically viable future.

Tips For Successful Oyster Mushroom Cultivation

Providing Adequate Ventilation

  • Oyster mushrooms require proper ventilation to thrive. Here are some tips for providing adequate ventilation in your cultivation area:
  • Use fans or open windows to ensure a constant flow of fresh air. This helps to maintain a healthy environment for the mushrooms to grow.
  • Proper ventilation helps control humidity levels, preventing the growth of mold and bacteria that can harm oyster mushrooms.
  • Ensure that there is no stagnant air in the growing area. Stagnant air can lead to a buildup of carbon dioxide, which is detrimental to the mushroom’s growth.
  • Installing vents or exhaust fans can help regulate temperature and remove excess moisture, further promoting proper airflow.
  • Remember to maintain a clean and dust-free environment as dust particles can hinder the airflow necessary for mushroom growth.

Controlling Pests And Diseases

  • To ensure successful oyster mushroom cultivation, it is essential to control pests and diseases that can damage your crop.
  • Inspect your growing area regularly for signs of pests such as mites, flies, or bugs. If pests are found, promptly remove them and implement pest control measures.
  • Keep the growing area clean and free from debris that can attract pests and harbor diseases.
  • Maintain proper sanitation practices, including regularly disinfecting tools and equipment to minimize the risk of disease transmission.
  • Prevent cross-contamination between different mushroom batches by carefully handling and disposing of infected or contaminated materials.
  • If you notice any signs of disease, such as discoloration, rot, or abnormal growth patterns, take immediate actions to halt its spread, which may involve isolating affected mushrooms or adjusting growing conditions.

Harvesting At The Right Time

  • Harvesting oyster mushrooms at the right time ensures optimal quality and flavor. Here are a few tips to guide you:
  • Oyster mushrooms are typically ready for harvest when the caps are fully open but before the gills start to darken. Harvesting too early or too late can affect taste and texture.
  • When harvesting, gently twist the mushrooms at the base to separate them from the substrate. Avoid using excessive force that may damage nearby mushrooms or disrupt the growing environment.
  • Harvest mushrooms as soon as they reach the desired size. Leaving them on the substrate for too long can result in over-maturity, leading to a decline in taste and texture.
  • Regularly monitor the growth progress of your mushrooms to determine the optimal time for harvesting. This can vary depending on the specific mushroom variety and growing conditions.
  • After harvesting, store the mushrooms properly to maintain their freshness. Place them in a paper bag or breathable container in the refrigerator to extend their shelf life.

Frequently Asked Questions Of Oyster Mushroom Growth Stages

What Are The Different Stages Of Oyster Mushroom Growth?

Oyster mushroom growth goes through four stages: substrate colonization, primordial formation, fruiting body development, and harvest. During substrate colonization, mycelium spreads throughout the growing medium. Primordial formation involves the emergence of tiny mushroom pins. Fruiting body development is when these pins grow into mature mushrooms ready for harvest.

How Long Does It Take For Oyster Mushrooms To Grow?

The time it takes for oyster mushrooms to grow depends on various factors, such as temperature and growing conditions. On average, oyster mushrooms take around 2-3 weeks to grow from the colonization stage to harvest. However, keep in mind that this timeframe can vary and may require adjustments based on specific growing conditions.

What Are The Ideal Growing Conditions For Oyster Mushrooms?

Oyster mushrooms thrive in specific conditions. They prefer a temperature range of 20-25°c (68-77°f) and humidity levels of around 85-95%. They require indirect light and a well-ventilated environment. Additionally, a suitable growing medium, such as straw or sawdust, is necessary for their growth.

Maintaining these conditions will ensure successful oyster mushroom cultivation.

What Are Some Common Challenges When Growing Oyster Mushrooms?

While growing oyster mushrooms, it’s important to be aware of potential challenges. Contamination from mold or bacteria can hinder growth. Proper sterilization and hygiene practices are essential in preventing contamination. Maintaining the correct humidity and temperature levels can also be challenging but crucial for successful cultivation.

Additionally, selecting the right growing medium and providing adequate ventilation are important considerations.

Can Oyster Mushrooms Be Grown Indoors?

Yes, oyster mushrooms can be successfully grown indoors. In fact, indoor cultivation provides control over environmental factors, such as temperature and humidity, resulting in consistent growth. You can use mushroom grow kits or create your own growing setup using bags, containers, or shelves.

Indoor cultivation allows for year-round mushroom production and is suitable for those with limited outdoor space.


Overall, understanding the growth stages of oyster mushrooms is crucial for successful cultivation. From the inoculation phase to the fruiting stage, each step plays a vital role in ensuring a bountiful harvest. Starting with the selection of the proper substrate and spawn, followed by maintaining the ideal environmental conditions, these factors contribute to the overall growth and development of the mushrooms.

Adequate air flow, humidity, and temperature control are key elements to consider during the colonization and fruiting processes. Regular monitoring and timely adjustments will further optimize the growth stages. As the mushrooms progress, it’s important to be vigilant for any potential diseases or pests that could hinder their development.

By following these guidelines and understanding the various growth stages, you’ll be well-equipped to enjoy a successful harvest of delicious oyster mushrooms. Get experimenting and enjoy the rewarding journey of cultivating your own mushrooms!

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Amelia Clark

I'm Amelia Clark , a seasoned florist and gardening specialist with more than 15 years of practical expertise. Following the completion of my formal education, I dedicated myself to a flourishing career in floristry, acquiring extensive understanding of diverse flower species and their ideal cultivation requirements. Additionally, I possess exceptional skills as a writer and public speaker, having successfully published numerous works and delivered engaging presentations at various local garden clubs and conferences. Check our Social media Profiles: Facebook Page, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Youtube, Instagram Tumblr

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